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Hao-Chung Cheng, Nilanjana Datta, Nana Liu, Theshani Nuradha, Robert Salzmann, Mark M. Wilde (Mar 27 2024).

Abstract: Quantum hypothesis testing has been traditionally studied from the information-theoretic perspective, wherein one is interested in the optimal decay rate of error probabilities as a function of the number of samples of an unknown state. In this paper, we study the sample complexity of quantum hypothesis testing, wherein the goal is to determine the minimum number of samples needed to reach a desired error probability. By making use of the wealth of knowledge that already exists in the literature on quantum hypothesis testing, we characterize the sample complexity of binary quantum hypothesis testing in the symmetric and asymmetric settings, and we provide bounds on the sample complexity of multiple quantum hypothesis testing. In more detail, we prove that the sample complexity of symmetric binary quantum hypothesis testing depends logarithmically on the inverse error probability and inversely on the negative logarithm of the fidelity. As a counterpart of the quantum Stein’s lemma, we also find that the sample complexity of asymmetric binary quantum hypothesis testing depends logarithmically on the inverse type~II error probability and inversely on the quantum relative entropy. Finally, we provide lower and upper bounds on the sample complexity of multiple quantum hypothesis testing, with it remaining an intriguing open question to improve these bounds.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.17868

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