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Denis V. Vasilyev, Athreya Shankar, Raphael Kaubruegger, Peter Zoller (Apr 23 2024).

Abstract: We study optimal quantum sensing of multiple physical parameters using repeated measurements. In this scenario, the Fisher information framework sets the fundamental limits on sensing performance, yet the optimal states and corresponding measurements that attain these limits remain to be discovered. To address this, we extend the Fisher information approach with a second optimality requirement for a sensor to provide unambiguous estimation of unknown parameters. We propose a systematic method integrating Fisher information and Bayesian approaches to quantum metrology to identify the combination of input states and measurements that satisfies both optimality criteria. Specifically, we frame the optimal sensing problem as an optimization of an asymptotic Bayesian cost function that can be efficiently solved numerically and, in many cases, analytically. We refer to the resulting optimal sensor as a `quantum compass’ solution, which serves as a direct multiparameter counterpart to the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state-based interferometer, renowned for achieving the Heisenberg limit in single-parameter metrology. We provide exact quantum compass solutions for paradigmatic multiparameter problem of sensing two and three parameters using an SU(2) sensor. Our metrological cost function opens avenues for quantum variational techniques to design low-depth quantum circuits approaching the optimal sensing performance in the many-repetition scenario. We demonstrate this by constructing simple quantum circuits that achieve the Heisenberg limit for vector field and 3D rotations estimation using a limited set of gates available on a trapped-ion platform. Our work introduces and optimizes sensors for a practical notion of optimality, keeping in mind the ultimate goal of quantum sensors to precisely estimate unknown parameters.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.14194