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Jinkang Guo, Oliver Hart, Chi-Fang Chen, Aaron J. Friedman, Andrew Lucas (Apr 24 2024).

Abstract: We provide a systematic framework for constructing generic models of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics with a target stationary (mixed) state. Our framework identifies (almost) all combinations of Hamiltonian and dissipative dynamics that relax to a steady state of interest, generalizing the Davies’ generator for dissipative relaxation at finite temperature to nonequilibrium dynamics targeting arbitrary stationary states. We focus on Gibbs states of stabilizer Hamiltonians, identifying local Lindbladians compatible therewith by constraining the rates of dissipative and unitary processes. Moreover, given terms in the Lindbladian not compatible with the target state, our formalism identifies the operations – including syndrome measurements and local feedback – one must apply to correct these errors. Our methods also reveal new models of quantum dynamics: for example, we provide a “measurement-induced phase transition” where measurable two-point functions exhibit critical (power-law) scaling with distance at a critical ratio of the transverse field and rate of measurement and feedback. Time-reversal symmetry – defined naturally within our formalism – can be broken both in effectively classical, and intrinsically quantum, ways. Our framework provides a systematic starting point for exploring the landscape of quantum dynamical universality classes, as well as identifying new protocols for quantum error correction.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.14538