Abstract: We show a polynomial time quantum algorithm for solving the learning with errors problem
(LWE) with certain polynomial modulus-noise ratios. Combining with the reductions from lattice
problems to LWE shown by Regev [J.ACM 2009], we obtain polynomial time quantum algorithms
for solving the decisional shortest vector problem (GapSVP) and the shortest independent vector
problem (SIVP) for all n-dimensional lattices within approximation factors of Ω( ˜ n
4.5
). Previously,
no polynomial or even subexponential time quantum algorithms were known for solving GapSVP or
SIVP for all lattices within any polynomial approximation factors.
To develop a quantum algorithm for solving LWE, we mainly introduce two new techniques. First,
we introduce Gaussian functions with complex variances in the design of quantum algorithms. In
particular, we exploit the feature of the Karst wave in the discrete Fourier transform of complex
Gaussian functions. Second, we use windowed quantum Fourier transform with complex Gaussian
windows, which allows us to combine the information from both time and frequency domains. Using
those techniques, we first convert the LWE instance into quantum states with purely imaginary
Gaussian amplitudes, then convert purely imaginary Gaussian states into classical linear equations
over the LWE secret and error terms, and finally solve the linear system of equations using Gaussian
elimination. This gives a polynomial time quantum algorithm for solving LWE.

Abstract:We show a polynomial time quantum algorithm for solving the learning with errors problem (LWE) with certain polynomial modulus-noise ratios. Combining with the reductions from lattice problems to LWE shown by Regev [J.ACM 2009], we obtain polynomial time quantum algorithms for solving the decisional shortest vector problem (GapSVP) and the shortest independent vector problem (SIVP) for all n-dimensional lattices within approximation factors of Ω( ˜ n 4.5 ). Previously, no polynomial or even subexponential time quantum algorithms were known for solving GapSVP or SIVP for all lattices within any polynomial approximation factors. To develop a quantum algorithm for solving LWE, we mainly introduce two new techniques. First, we introduce Gaussian functions with complex variances in the design of quantum algorithms. In particular, we exploit the feature of the Karst wave in the discrete Fourier transform of complex Gaussian functions. Second, we use windowed quantum Fourier transform with complex Gaussian windows, which allows us to combine the information from both time and frequency domains. Using those techniques, we first convert the LWE instance into quantum states with purely imaginary Gaussian amplitudes, then convert purely imaginary Gaussian states into classical linear equations over the LWE secret and error terms, and finally solve the linear system of equations using Gaussian elimination. This gives a polynomial time quantum algorithm for solving LWE.