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Takaya Matsuura, Shinichiro Yamano, Yui Kuramochi, Toshihiko Sasaki, Masato Koashi (Mar 20 2024).

Abstract: We developed new concentration inequalities for a quantum state on an $N$-qudit system or measurement outcomes on it that apply to an adversarial setup, where an adversary prepares the quantum state. Our one-sided concentration inequalities for a quantum state require the $N$-qudit system to be permutation invariant and are thus de-Finetti type, but they are tighter than the one previously obtained. We show that the bound can further be tightened if each qudit system has an additional symmetry. Furthermore, our concentration inequality for the outcomes of independent and identical measurements on an $N$-qudit quantum system has no assumption on the adversarial quantum state and is much tighter than the conventional one obtained through Azuma’s inequality. We numerically demonstrate the tightness of our bounds in simple quantum information processing tasks.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.11719