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Sergey N. Filippov, Sabrina Maniscalco, Guillermo García-Pérez (Mar 21 2024).

Abstract: Error mitigation has elevated quantum computing to the scale of hundreds of qubits and tens of layers; however, yet larger scales (deeper circuits) are needed to fully exploit the potential of quantum computing to solve practical problems otherwise intractable. Here we demonstrate three key results that pave the way for the leap from quantum utility to quantum advantage: (1) we present a thorough derivation of random and systematic errors associated to the most advanced error mitigation strategies, including probabilistic error cancellation (PEC), zero noise extrapolation (ZNE) with probabilistic error amplification, and tensor-network error mitigation (TEM); (2) we prove that TEM (i) has the lowest sampling overhead among all three techniques under realistic noise, (ii) is optimal, in the sense that it saturates the universal lower cost bound for error mitigation, and (iii) is therefore the most promising approach to quantum advantage; (3) we propose a concrete notion of practical quantum advantage in terms of the universality of algorithms, stemming from the commercial need for a problem-independent quantum simulation device. We also establish a connection between error mitigation, relying on additional measurements, and error correction, relying on additional qubits, by demonstrating that TEM with a sufficient bond dimension works similarly to an error correcting code of distance 3. We foresee that the interplay and trade-off between the two resources will be the key to a smooth transition between error mitigation and error correction, and hence between near-term and fault-tolerant quantum computers. Meanwhile, we argue that quantum computing with optimal error mitigation, relying on modest classical computer power for tensor network contraction, has the potential to reach larger scales in accurate simulation than classical methods alone.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.13542