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Simone Roncallo, Angela Rosy Morgillo, Chiara Macchiavello, Lorenzo Maccone, Seth Lloyd (Apr 24 2024).

Abstract: We present a quantum optical pattern recognition method for binary classification tasks. Without direct image reconstruction, it classifies an object in terms of the rate of two-photon coincidences at the output of a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer, where both the input and the classifier parameters are encoded into single-photon states. Our method exhibits the same behaviour of a classical neuron of unit depth. Once trained, it shows a constant $\mathcal{O}(1)$ complexity in the number of computational operations and photons required by a single classification. This is a superexponential advantage over a classical neuron (that is at least linear in the image resolution). We provide simulations and analytical comparisons with analogous neural network architectures.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.15266