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Paul Gondolf, Samuel O. Scalet, Alberto Ruiz-de-Alarcon, Alvaro M. Alhambra, Angela Capel (Feb 29 2024).

Abstract: We show that spin chains in thermal equilibrium have a correlation structure in which individual regions are strongly correlated at most with their near vicinity. We quantify this with alternative notions of the conditional mutual information defined through the so-called Belavkin-Staszewski relative entropy. We prove that these measures decay super-exponentially, under the assumption that the spin chain Hamiltonian is translation-invariant. Using a recovery map associated with these measures, we sequentially construct tensor network approximations in terms of marginals of small (sub-logarithmic) size. As a main application, we show that classical representations of the states can be learned efficiently from local measurements with a polynomial sample complexity. We also prove an approximate factorization condition for the purity of the entire Gibbs state, which implies that it can be efficiently estimated to a small multiplicative error from a small number of local measurements. As a technical step of independent interest, we show an upper bound to the decay of the Belavkin-Staszewski relative entropy upon the application of a conditional expectation.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2402.18500