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Victor V. Albert, Eric Kubischta, Mikhail Lemeshko, Lee R. Liu (Mar 08 2024).

Abstract: We formulate a quantum phase space for molecular rotational and nuclear-spin states. Taking in molecular geometry and nuclear-spin data, our framework yields admissible position and momentum states, inter-convertible via a generalized Fourier transform. We classify molecules into three types – asymmetric, rotationally symmetric, and perrotationally symmetric – with the last type having no macroscopic analogue due to nuclear-spin statistics constraints. We identify two features in perrotationally symmetric state spaces that are Hamiltonian-independent and induced solely by symmetry and spin statistics. First, many molecular species are intrinsically rotation-spin entangled in a way that cannot be broken without transitioning to another species or breaking symmetry. Second, each molecular position state houses an internal pseudo-spin or “fiber” degree of freedom, and the fiber’s Berry phase or matrix after adiabatic changes in position yields naturally robust operations, akin to braiding anyonic quasiparticles or realizing fault-tolerant quantum gates. We outline scenarios where these features can be experimentally probed.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.04572