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Boyang Chen, Andrea Coladangelo, Or Sattath (Apr 05 2024).

Abstract: In this work, we focus on the following question: what are the cryptographic implications of having access to an oracle that provides a single Haar random quantum state? We show, perhaps surprisingly, that such an oracle is sufficient to construct quantum pseudorandomness. Pseudorandom states (PRS) are a family of states for which it is hard to distinguish between polynomially many copies of either a state sampled uniformly from the family or a Haar random state. A weaker notion, called single-copy pseudorandom states (1PRS), satisfies this property with respect to a single copy. Our main result is that 1PRS (as well as bit-commitments) exist relative to an oracle that provides a single Haar random state. We build on this result to show the existence of an oracle relative to which 1PRS exist, but PRS do not. This provides one of the first black-box separations between different forms of quantum pseudorandomness.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.03295