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Chenghong Zhu, Chengkai Zhu, Zhiping Liu, Xin Wang (Feb 29 2024).

Abstract: The unique features of entanglement and non-locality in quantum systems, where there are pairs of bipartite states perfectly distinguishable by general entangled measurements yet indistinguishable by local operations and classical communication, hold significant importance in quantum entanglement theory, distributed quantum information processing, and quantum data hiding. This paper delves into the entanglement cost for discriminating two bipartite quantum states, employing positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) with positive partial transpose (PPT) to achieve optimal success probability through general entangled measurements. First, we introduce an efficiently computable quantity called the spectral PPT-distance of a POVM to quantify the localness of a general measurement. We show that it can be a lower bound for the entanglement cost of optimal discrimination by PPT POVMs. Second, we establish an upper bound on the entanglement cost of optimal discrimination by PPT POVMs for any pair of states. Leveraging this result, we show that a pure state can be optimally discriminated against any other state with the assistance of a single Bell state. This study advances our understanding of the pivotal role played by entanglement in quantum state discrimination, serving as a crucial element in unlocking quantum data hiding against locally constrained measurements.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2402.18446