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Shin Ho Choe, Robert Koenig (Feb 22 2024).

Abstract: We show how to realize a general quantum circuit involving gates between arbitrary pairs of qubits by means of geometrically local quantum operations and efficient classical computation. We prove that circuit-level local stochastic noise modeling an imperfect implementation of our derived schemes is equivalent to local stochastic noise in the original circuit. Our constructions incur a constant-factor increase in the quantum circuit depth and a polynomial overhead in the number of qubits: To execute an arbitrary quantum circuit on $n$ qubits, we give a 3D quantum fault-tolerance architecture involving $O(n^{3/2} \log^3 n)$ qubits, and a quasi-2D architecture using $O(n^2 \log^3 n)$ qubits. Applied to recent fault-tolerance constructions, this gives a fault-tolerance threshold theorem for universal quantum computations with local operations, a polynomial qubit overhead and a quasi-polylogarithmic depth overhead. More generally, our transformation dispenses with the need for considering the locality of operations when designing schemes for fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2402.13863