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Ian Thorvaldson, Dean Poulos, Christian M. Moehle, Saiful H. Misha, Hermann Edlbauer, Jonathan Reiner, Helen Geng, Benoit Voisin, Michael T. Jones, Matthew B. Donnelly, Luis F. Pena, Charles D. Hill, Casey R. Myers, Joris G. Keizer, Yousun Chung, Samuel K. Gorman, Ludwik Kranz, Michelle Y. Simmons (Apr 16 2024).

Abstract: Spin qubits in silicon are strong contenders for realizing a practical quantum computer. This technology has made remarkable progress with the demonstration of single and two-qubit gates above the fault-tolerant threshold and entanglement of up to three qubits. However, maintaining high fidelity operations while executing multi-qubit algorithms has remained elusive, only being achieved for two spin qubits to date due to the small qubit size, which makes it difficult to control qubits without creating crosstalk errors. Here, we use a four-qubit silicon processor with every operation above the fault tolerant limit and demonstrate Grover’s algorithm with a ~95% probability of finding the marked state, one of the most successful implementations to date. Our four-qubit processor is made of three phosphorus atoms and one electron spin precision-patterned into 1.5 nm${}^2$ isotopically pure silicon. The strong resulting confinement potential, without additional confinement gates that can increase cross-talk, leverages the benefits of having both electron and phosphorus nuclear spins. Significantly, the all-to-all connectivity of the nuclear spins provided by the hyperfine interaction not only allows for efficient multi-qubit operations, but also provides individual qubit addressability. Together with the long coherence times of the nuclear and electron spins, this results in all four single qubit fidelities above 99.9% and controlled-Z gates between all pairs of nuclear spins above 99% fidelity. The high control fidelities, combined with >99% fidelity readout of all nuclear spins, allows for the creation of a three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state with 96.2% fidelity, the highest reported for semiconductor spin qubits so far. Such nuclear spin registers can be coupled via electron exchange, establishing a path for larger scale fault-tolerant quantum processors.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.08741