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Emilio Pelaez Cisneros, Victory Omole, Pranav Gokhale, Rich Rines, Kaitlin N. Smith, Michael A. Perlin, Akel Hashim (Mar 20 2024).

Abstract: Average circuit eigenvalue sampling (ACES) was introduced by Flammia in arXiv:2108.05803 as a protocol to characterize the Pauli error channels of individual gates across the device simultaneously. The original paper posed using ACES to characterize near-term devices as an open problem. This work advances in this direction by presenting a full implementation of ACES for real devices and deploying it to Superstaq arXiv:2309.05157, along with a device-tailored resource estimation obtained through simulations and experiments. Our simulations show that ACES is able to estimate one- and two-qubit non-uniform Pauli error channels to an average eigenvalue absolute error of under $0.003$ and total variation distance of under 0.001 between simulated and reconstructed probability distributions over Pauli errors with $10^5$ shots per circuit using 5 circuits of depth 14. The question of estimating general error channels through twirling techniques in real devices remains open, as it is dependent on a device’s native gates, but simulations with the Clifford set show results in agreement with reported hardware data. Experimental results on IBM’s Algiers and Osaka devices are presented, where we characterize their error channels as Pauli channels without twirling.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.12857