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Filippo Girardi, Giacomo De Palma (Feb 15 2024).

Abstract: We study quantum neural networks made by parametric one-qubit gates and fixed two-qubit gates in the limit of infinite width, where the generated function is the expectation value of the sum of single-qubit observables over all the qubits. First, we prove that the probability distribution of the function generated by the untrained network with randomly initialized parameters converges in distribution to a Gaussian process whenever each measured qubit is correlated only with few other measured qubits. Then, we analytically characterize the training of the network via gradient descent with square loss on supervised learning problems. We prove that, as long as the network is not affected by barren plateaus, the trained network can perfectly fit the training set and that the probability distribution of the function generated after training still converges in distribution to a Gaussian process. Finally, we consider the statistical noise of the measurement at the output of the network and prove that a polynomial number of measurements is sufficient for all the previous results to hold and that the network can always be trained in polynomial time.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2402.08726

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