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Zijian Song, Guanyu Zhu (Apr 09 2024).

Abstract: We investigate boundaries of 3D color codes and provide a systematic classification into 101 distinct boundary types. The elementary types of boundaries are codimension-1 (2D) boundaries that condense electric particle ($Z$-type) or magnetic flux ($X$-type) excitations in the 3D color code, including the $Z$-boundary condensing only electric particles, the $X$-boundary condensing only the magnetic flux, and other boundaries condensing both electric and magnetic excitations. Two novel types of boundaries can be generated based on certain elementary types. The first type is generated by applying transversal-$T$ gate on the entire code in the presence of the $X$-boundary, which effectively sweeps the codimension-1 (2D) $T$-domain wall across the system and attaches it to the $X$-boundary. Since the $T$-domain wall cannot condense on the $X$-boundary, a new \textitmagic boundary is produced, where the boundary stabilizers contain $XS$-stabilizers going beyond the conventional Pauli stabilizer formalism and hence contains `magic’. Neither electric nor magnetic excitations can condense on such a magic boundary, and only the composite of the magnetic flux and codimension-2 (1D) $S$-domain wall can condense on it, which makes the magic boundary going beyond the classification of the Lagrangian subgroup. The second type is generated by applying transversal-$S$ gate on a codimension-1 (2D) submanifold in the presence of certain codimension-1 (2D) boundaries, which effectively sweeps the $S$-domain wall across this submanifold and attaches it onto the boundary. This generates a codimension-2 (1D) \textitnested boundary at the intersection. We also connect these novel boundaries to their previously discovered counterpart in the $\mathbb{Z}_2^3$ gauge theory equivalent to three copies of 3D toric codes…

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.05033

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