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Jeongwan Haah, Yunchao Liu, Xinyu Tan (Feb 09 2024).

Abstract: We construct random walks on simple Lie groups that quickly converge to the Haar measure for all moments up to order $t$. Specifically, a step of the walk on the unitary or orthognoal group of dimension $2^{\mathsf n}$ is a random Pauli rotation $e^{\mathrm i \theta P /2}$. The spectral gap of this random walk is shown to be $\Omega(1/t)$, which coincides with the best previously known bound for a random walk on the permutation group on ${0,1}^{\mathsf n}$. This implies that the walk gives an $\varepsilon$-approximate unitary $t$-design in depth $O(\mathsf n t^2 + t \log 1/\varepsilon)d$ where $d=O(\log \mathsf n)$ is the circuit depth to implement $e^{\mathrm i \theta P /2}$. Our simple proof uses quadratic Casimir operators of Lie algebras.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2402.05239