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Mirjam Weilenmann, Costantino Budroni, Miguel Navascues (Feb 20 2024).

Abstract: We study what can or cannot be certified in communication scenarios where the assumption of independence and identical distribution (iid) between experimental rounds fails. In this respect, we prove that membership tests for non-convex sets of correlations cannot be formulated in the non-iid regime. Similarly, it is impossible to self-test non-extreme quantum operations, such as mixed states, or noisy quantum measurements, unless one allows more than a single use thereof within the same experimental round. One consequence of our results is that non-classicality in causal networks without inputs cannot be experimentally demonstrated. By analyzing optimal non-iid strategies in the triangle scenario, we raise the need to take into account the prior communication required to set up a causal network.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2402.12318