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Aleks Kissinger, John van de Wetering (Apr 12 2024).

Abstract: This is the second in a series of “graphical grokking” papers in which we study how stabiliser codes can be understood using the ZX calculus. In this paper we show that certain complex rules involving ZX diagrams, called spider nest identities, can be captured succinctly using the scalable ZX calculus, and all such identities can be proved inductively from a single new rule using the Clifford ZX calculus. This can be combined with the ZX picture of CSS codes, developed in the first “grokking” paper, to give a simple characterisation of the set of all transversal diagonal gates at the third level of the Clifford hierarchy implementable in an arbitrary CSS code.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.07828