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David T. Stephen, Xie Chen (Mar 29 2024).

Abstract: Finite depth quantum circuits provide an equivalence relation between gapped phases. Moreover, there can be nontrivial domain walls either within the same gapped phase or between different gapped phases, whose equivalence relations are given by finite depth quantum circuits in one lower dimension. In this paper, we use such unitary equivalence relations to study the fusion of one-dimensional gapped phases. In particular, we use finite depth circuits to fuse two gapped phases, local unitaries to fuse two domain walls, and a combination of both to fuse gapped phases with domain walls. This provides a concrete illustration of some simple aspects of the `higher-category’ structure of gapped defects in a higher-dimensional trivial gapped bulk state.

Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/2403.19068